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Module 1 - Entrepreneurship

Social Entrepreneurship
Innovative thinking

Learning outcomes

After studying this topic, the participant will know/ will be able to: Comprehend the concept of entrepreneurship, its process, its different types and the different entrepreneurial contexts. In addition, participants will also be able to, not only understand the challenges and opportunities of entrepreneurship, but they will also be able differentiate some the roles of entrepreneurs and managers.

Module objectives and aims

To introduce students to the notion of entrepreneurship, and offer some insights about the several opportunities and challenges of entrepreneurship which are faced in the business world.

Module list of content

  1. Introduction to entrepreneurship
    1. Definition of an entrepreneur
    2. Characteristics of an entrepreneur
    3. Traits of an entrepreneur
    4. Roles of an entrepreneur and manager
  2. Definition of entrepreneurship
    1. Types of entrepreneurship
  3. Entrepreneurial contexts
  4. Entrepreneurship process
  5. Opportunities and alternatives of entrepreneurship
  6. Challenges of entrepreneurship

Key competences covered

An ability to cover several aspects of entrepreneurial activities, and the several elements involved in the development of an entrepreneurial ventures.


Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneur, Entrepreneurial activities, Entrepreneurial process, Entrepreneurial challenges, Entrepreneurial opportunities.



  1. Baumol, W. J. (1968). Entrepreneurship in economic theory. The American economic review, 58(2), 64-71.
  2. Bull, I., & Willard, G. E. (1993). Towards a theory of entrepreneurship. Journal of business venturing, 8(3), 183-195.
  3. Cantillon, R. (1775). The circulation and exchange of goods and merchandise. Chapter 13 of Higgs, H. (Ed), Essai sur la Nature du Commerce en Général, Macmillan, London.
  4. Carsrud, A. L., & Brännback, M. (2007). Entrepreneurship: Greenwood Guides to Business. Westport, USA: Greenwood Press.
  5. Christensen, P. V., Ulhøi, J. P., & Madsen, H. (2000). The entrepreneurial process in a dynamic network perspective: a review and future directions for research. LOK Working Paper No. 6-2000, Copenhagen: LOK Research Center.
  6. Leibenstein, H. (1968). Entrepreneurship and development. The American Economic Review, 58(2), 72-83.
  7. Gartner, W. B. (1988). Who is the entrepreneur? Is the wrong question. In American Journal of Small Business; Spring, 88, 12(4), 11-32.
  8. Gartner, W. B., Shaver, K. G., Gatewood, E., & Katz, J. A. (1994). Finding the entrepreneur in entrepreneurship. (Editorial), Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 18(3), 5-9.
  9. Hamilton, R. T., & Harper, D. A. (1994). The entrepreneur in theory and practice. Journal of economic Studies, 21(6), 3-18.
  10. Kuratko, D. F. (2016). Entrepreneurship: Theory, process, and practice. Tenth Edition, Boston, USA: Cengage Learning.
  11. Lall, M., & Sahai, S. (2008). Entrepreneurship. Second Edition, New Delhi, India: Excel Books.
  12. Nandram, S. S., & Samsom, K. J. (2006). The spirit of entrepreneurship: Exploring the essence of entrepreneurship through personal stories. Berlin: Springer.
  13. Pendergast, W. R. (2003). Entrepreneurial Contexts and Traits of Entrepreneurs. Proceedings Teaching Entrepreneurship to Engineering students, Engineering conferences international, Monterey, CA, USA.
  14. Ramachandran, K. K., & Gokila, R. (2012). International Entrepreneurship—Opportunities and Challenges. In Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Jerinabi, U., & Santhi, P. (Eds), New Delhi, India: Allied Publishers Private Limited, pp, 21- 25.
  15. Schumpeter, J. A. (1976). Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. Fifth Edition, London: George Allen & Unwin.
  16. Stevenson, H. H., & Jarillo, J. C. (1990). A paradigm of entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial management. Strategic Management Journal. 11(15), 17-27.

Further Reading

  1. Elfring, T., & Hulsink, W. (2003). Networks in entrepreneurship: The case of high-technology firms. Small business economics, 21(4), 409-422.
  2. Kalantaridis, C., & Bika, Z. (2006). Local embeddedness and rural entrepreneurship: case-study evidence from Cumbria, England. Environment and Planning A, 38(8), 1561-1579.
  3. Szivas, E. (2001). Entrance into tourism entrepreneurship: a UK case study. Tourism and hospitality research, 3(2), 163-172.
  4. Urbano, D., Toledano, N., & Ribeiro-Soriano, D. (2011). Socio-cultural factors and transnational entrepreneurship: A multiple case study in Spain. International Small Business Journal, 29(2), 119-134.